Shantytowns are a feature of 19th century Brooklyn and New York City. They were the low-income housing of the day, often for newly arrived immigrants. In Red Hook, the presence of shantytowns is directly related to the waterfront (eg, low-lying, often-flooded land was not prime development land). Shantytown dwellers are not the same as squatters (people occupying real estate without permission) since 19th century shantytown residents usually paid ground rent to the property owner and usually built their own shelters. Shantytowns of that era are built on open land before development. "Hoovervilles" are shantytowns of the Great Depression, named in reference to President Hoover; those shantytowns were often squatter camps.